Literary Criticism Special Brief Suggestion

Literary Criticism Special Brief Suggestion

The Study of Poetry

1. What kind of writing is “The Study of Poetry”?

Ans. “The Study of Poetry” is a critical writing.

2. What was the occasion of writing this critical essay?

ইউটিউবে ভিডিও লেকচার দেখুনঃ

Ans. At the request of T.H.H Ward, Arnold wrote this critical writing as a general introduction.

3. Why does Arnold say that “the future of poetry is immense”?

Ans. According to Arnold, the future of poetry is immense since poetry worthy of its high destinies will provide spiritual satisfaction to man in every crisis in the future.

4. What is meant by ‘illusion”?

Ans. An illusion is a false belief. The writer uses it to deceive someone, either the reader or a character, into thinking something that is not true.

5. What is the difference between idea and illusion?

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Ans: An idea is real human thought, but an illusion is a false belief or idea.

6. What is the foundation/ basis of poetry?

Ans. Idea is the foundation or basis of poetry.

7. What is the role of poetry in human life?

Ans. It helps us understand and appreciate the world around us.

8. Where does lie the idea of poetry?

Ans. Poetry lies in the hopes that we don’t know.

9. What does Wordsworth call poetry? / How does Wordsworth define poetry?

Ans. Wordsworth defines poetry as “The spontaneous overflow of powerful passion.”

10. How will poetry console and sustain people?

Ans. Poetry will console and sustain people by providing answers to spiritual questions they will face.

আরো পড়ুনঃDescribe the Different Estimates Enunciated by Arnold. (বাংলায়)

11. Who was Saint Beuve?

Ans: Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve was a French literary critic.

12. What does the term ‘poetic beauty” mean?

Ans. By the term ‘poetic beauty,’ Arnold means that poetry is something extremely lovely that portrays feelings sensitively.

13. How is poetry ‘the criticism of life’?

Ans: “Poetry is the critique of life under the conditions established by the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty.”

14. What is the best poetry, according to Arnold?

Ans: Arnold thinks the best poetry should deal with moral concepts rather than didactic ones.

15. What is the ‘touchstone method?

Ans: Matthew Arnold has developed this method to compare a piece of literature to the greatest of its kind to measure its quality.

16. How can we apply this touchstone method?

Ans. This touchstone method can be applied by memorizing lines or portions of great poems and using them as a test to find excellence in other or new ones.

17. What is diction?

Ans: Diction is the choice and use of words in speech or writing.

18. What is chivalry?

Ans. Chivalry is a medieval code of conduct emphasizing honor, civility, bravery, and respect for women, influencing knightly behavior and societal conventions.

19. What is Chaucer’s attitude to life?

Ans: In his works, Chaucer’s perspective on life reveals a deep awareness of human nature, humor, and a critical assessment of established norms.

20. How does Chaucer present human life?

Ans: Chaucer presents human life as diverse, flawed, and often humorous in “The Canterbury Tales,” reflecting the complexities of human nature.

21. When does a poet achieve this ‘high seriousness’ in his poetry?

Ans. When a poet deals with a serious subject in a simple and focused manner, he achieves the quality of great seriousness.

22. Who was Cowley?

Ans: Abraham Cowley is a 17th-century English poet known for metaphysical and pastoral works, including “The Chronicle” and “The Mistress.”

23. Who was Chapman?

Ans: George Chapman (1559-1634) was an English poet, playwright, and translator. He is known for his poetic works, especially his translations of Homer’s epics and his plays in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.

24. What is the opinion of Arnold about Robert Burns?

Ans. According to Arnold, Robert Burns’ Scottish poems are brilliant, but his English poems cannot be considered great.

25. Who is Homer?

Ans: Homer was an ancient Greek poet and author of epic poems “Iliad” and “Odyssey,” considered fundamental works in Western literature.

26. How is poetry greater than history?

Ans: Poetry surpasses history because it can give the reader vivid, captivating illustrations of what should be rather than what has been or will be.

The Metaphysical Poets

1. Who was T.S. Eliot?

Ans: T.S. Eliot was a renowned 20th-century poet, essayist, and playwright, known for his influential works like “The Waste Land” and “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.”

2. How does Eliot characterize the work of the seventeenth century?

Ans. Eliot defines seventeenth-century poetry as “more often named than read, and more often read than properly studied.”

3. What is Eliot’s brief comment on Grierson’s anthology?

Ans. Eliot comments that it is a ‘piece of criticism and a provocation of criticism”.

4. How does Eliot brand Grierson’s “Metaphysical Poetry”?

Ans. Eliot brands it as a so-called school of poetry or a movement.

5. Who are the two poets Eliot considers nearer to Donne than any other?

Ans. Eliot considers Marvell and Bishop King as nearer to Donne than any other poets are to him.

6. To which period of literature does the poetry of Donne belong?

Ans. The poetry of Donne belongs to the late Elizabethan period.

আরো পড়ুনঃDiscuss Eagleton’s Assessment of Arnold’s View of the Role of Literature as a Substitute for Religion. (বাংলায়)

7. Where did Johnson borrow from?

Ans. Johnson borrowed from Latin.

8. What element of poetry is common for Donne and Cowley?

Ans. Metaphysical conceits and complex imagery are common elements in the poetry of both Donne and Cowley.

9. What do both Donne and Cowley use as the poetic device?

Ans. Donne and Cowley use metaphysical conceit as a poetic device, employing elaborate and extended comparisons between seemingly unrelated ideas to explore complex emotions and intellectual themes.

10. How does Eliot characterize Donne’s line “A bracelet of bright hair about the bone”?

Ans. Eliot describes Donne’s cited statements as telescoping of imagery and multiple meanings.

11. Where does the force of the impeachment lie?

Ans. The force of the impeachment comes from the failure of the conjunction, from the reality that thoughts are frequently bound but not joined.

12. How is the language of Herbert?

Ans. George Herbert’s language is poetic, profound, and infused with religious themes. His works often use intricate metaphors to explore faith, love, and the human condition.

13. What method does Eliot suggest for defining metaphysical poetry?

Ans. T.S. Eliot suggests the “unification of sensibility” method to define metaphysical poetry, combining intellectual and emotional aspects to create a harmonious whole.

14. What do the later Elizabethan and Jacobean poets express in the verse?

Ans. They express a level of growth of sensibility in their verse that is not present in any of the prose, no matter how good it is.

15. How was Marlowe as an Elizabethan dramatist?

Ans. Christopher Marlowe, an influential Elizabethan dramatist, was a master of blank verse, exploring complex themes and creating iconic characters, paving the way for Shakespearean drama.

16. How are thoughts and feelings related in Chapman?

Ans. In Chapman, there is a direct sensuous apprehension of thought into feeling.

17. In which century did a dissociation of sensibility set in?

Ans. 17th century.

18. What were the general characteristics of the sentimental age?

Ans. The Sentimental Age: 18th-century literary movement, emotions over reason, empathy, sensibility, nature appreciation, moral virtue, and introspection in art and literature.

19. In which case would the metaphysical poets not have been classified as metaphysical?

Ans. If their poetry lacked the characteristic themes of intellectual complexity, exploration of abstract ideas, and the use of conceits, the metaphysical poets would not be classified as metaphysical.

20. According to Eliot, in what sense is a poet better when he is more intelligent?

Ans. A poet is better when he is more intelligent because he will have more interests when he is more intelligent.

21. What is not a permanent necessity for poetry?

Ans. Interesting in philosophy or any other subject is not a permanent necessity for poets.

22. What does our civilization comprehend?

Ans. Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity.

23. What does Eliot think about looking into our hearts?

Ans. T.S. Eliot encourages introspection, urging us to delve into our hearts to confront the truth, find purpose, and embrace the human experience.

24. What does Eliot regret about Grierson’s anthology?

Ans. Eliot is disappointed that Townshend’s excellent poem “Dialogue between a Pilgrim and Time” was left out of Grierson’s book.

25. What is this disassociation of sensibility?

Ans: “Disassociation of sensibility” is a literary term coined by T.S. Eliot, describing a separation of thought and feeling in poetry, hindering the fusion of emotions and intellect.

26. Why does TS Eliot praise the metaphysical poets?

Ans: T.S. Eliot praises metaphysical poets for their intellectual complexity, ingenious use of conceits, and ability to unify emotion and thought in their poetry.

27. What does Elliot mean by sensibility?

Ans: Fusion of thought and feeling.

28. How is the experience of an ordinary man?

Ans: Chaotic, irregular, and fragmentary.

29. With whom does Eliot compare the poets of the metaphysical school?

Ans: With Dante, Guido Cavalcanti, Guido Guinizelli, and Cino da Pistoia.

Introduction to Culture and Imperialism

1. What was the result of Said’s research on culture and empire?

Ans. Said’s research on culture and empire resulted in a series of lectures he gave at several universities in the United States, Canada, and England between 1985 and 1986.

2. What does Orientalism mainly deal with?

Ans. Orientalism mainly deals with the affairs of the Middle East.

3. What is Robinson Crusoe about?

Ans. Robinson Crusoe, a novel by Daniel Defoe, follows a shipwrecked man’s survival on a remote island. He learns to adapt, faces challenges, and befriends a native named Friday, illustrating resilience and self-reliance.

আরো পড়ুনঃHow Does Eagleton Evaluate ‘New Criticism’?(বাংলায়)

4. What does Said say about the recent criticism?

Ans. Said claims that, despite contemporary criticism of narrative fiction, its place in history and the imperial world remains ignored.

5. What did inspire the Americans and the Europeans to fight for equality?

Ans. Many Europeans and Americans were inspired to struggle for a new story of equality and human community by the grand myths of emancipation and their protagonists.

6. What was Arnold’s idea of culture?

Ans. Arnold argued that culture can mitigate, but not entirely eliminate, the effects of modern, aggressive mercantile and brutalizing urban living.

7. How does Said admire Dante and Shakespeare?

Ans. Dante and Shakespeare, according to Said, provided humans “the best that was thought and known, the realistic picture of life.”

8. What, according to Said, is Dickens’ Great Expectations about?

Ans. According to him, it is a novel of self-delusion and the hero’s vain attempt to become a gentleman without any hard labor.

9. Where is Conrad’s Nostromo set in?

Ans. Conrad’s Nostromo is set in a fictional South American country, Costaguana, during political and social turmoil.

10. When and why was Australia established as a penal colony?

Ans. Australia was established as a penal colony in the late eighteenth century so England could transport an irredeemable or unwanted excess population of criminals.

11. What does Conrad’s Nostromo forecast?

Ans. Conrad’s “Nostromo” forecasts the dark consequences of greed, power struggles, and corruption amidst political unrest in a fictional South American country.

12. How does the author look upon the present world?

Ans. Said’s vision of the present world is neither pessimistic nor hopeful, and our ‘texts’ regarding it can be either inventive or monotonous.

13. Why does the author comment on the study of the history of imperialism and its culture?

Ans. Though declarations of separatist and supremacist ideology have risen here and there, Said believes that the history of imperialism cannot be viewed as a unified or segmented whole.

14. How, according to Said, is India projected in Kipling’s Kim?

Ans. In Said’s opinion, Kipling’s Kim depicts India as extraordinarily beautiful, but it rests on an Anglo-Indian mindset believing that growth requires British control.

15. What is one of the main subjects of Said’s book Culture and Imperialism?

Ans. The historical experience in relation to culture and aesthetic forms is one of the main subjects of Said’s book “Culture and Imperialism”.

16. When did America come out as an empire?

Ans. America emerged as an empire from the nineteenth to the second half of the twentieth century.

17. What is Said’s expectation about the American nation?

Ans. Said expects that despite its extraordinary cultural diversity, the United States is and will remain a coherent nation.

18. Why does Edward Said call New York ‘an exilic city par excellence?

Ans. Because it bears the characteristics of the colonial city’s Manichean structure, many migrants worldwide flock here and join with voices to be heard.

19. What is decolonization?

Ans: Decolonization is the process of undoing colonial rule and restoring sovereignty to formerly colonized nations and peoples.

The Rise of English

1.  What kind of writing is “The Rise of English”?

Ans: “The Rise of English” by Terry Eagleton is a non-fiction book exploring the historical and cultural significance of the English language’s growth and influence.

2. What did the word literature mean in the eighteenth century?

Ans. In the eighteenth century, literature referred to written works, including poetry, drama, essays, and fiction, with an emphasis on artistry and culture.

3. What kind of writing was not considered literature in the eighteenth century?

Ans: Folktales, broadsides, ballads, and popular pamphlets were not considered literature in the eighteenth century.

4. When did literature in the modern sense emerge?

Ans. Literature in the modern sense emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

5. What is ‘A Defense of Poetry’?

Ans. ‘A Defense of Poetry’ is an essay by Percy Bysshe Shelley justifying the importance and power of poetic expression.

6. What did poetry signify in the Romantic period?

Ans. Emotion, nature, individualism; a means to express intense feelings, celebrate beauty, and ponder the mysteries of existence.

7. What is An Apology for Poetry?

Ans: An Apology for Poetry is a defense of literature’s value, written by Sir Philip Sidney in Renaissance England.

8. What kind of society did the Romantics live in?

Ans. The Romantics lived in a society where imagination was considered more appealing than truth, and poetry was preferred over prose or rational facts.

9. How was England turned into a police state in the Romantic period?

Ans. During the Romantic period, ruthless repression of the opposition transformed England into a police state.

10. What did the word ‘poetry’ imply during the Romantic period?

Ans. During the Romantic period, the term ‘poetry’ meant more than just a creative thinking style; it also had social, political, and philosophical implications.

11. What was the effect of aesthetics?

Ans. Aesthetics enriched experiences, influencing emotions, perceptions, and attitudes toward objects, art, and environments.

12. What was the condition of religion by the mid-Victorian period?

Ans: Religion in the mid-Victorian period remained influential but faced challenges from scientific advancements and emerging skepticism.

13. Who commented on the sickness of England?

Ans. George Gordon commented on the sickness of England.

14.  What triple function, according to Professor George Gordon, can literature perform?

Ans. According to Professor George Gordon, literature can serve three functions: it can delight, educate, and save our souls while also healing the state.

15. According to Eagleton, what should be the motive of literature?

Ans. According to Terry Eagleton, the motive of literature is to challenge and transform societal norms through artistic expression and critical exploration.

16. What were the purposes of cheap liberal education?

Ans. The goal of cheap liberal education was to develop social solidarity, sympathy, and fellow feeling and instill a sense of national pride and moral principles.

17. How does Eagleton appreciate Scrutiny?

Ans. In his view, Scrutiny was not simply a journal but also the focal point of a moral and cultural campaign. According to Eagleton, persons linked with Scrutiny significantly contributed to the advancement of English studies following World War I.

18. How can literature inspire people for a decent living?

Ans. Literature can motivate people to work toward better living conditions or more control over their lives by expressing timeless truths and beauty and by putting the basic needs of working people in a celestial perspective.

19. How does Eagleton criticize Eliot’s view on Tradition?

Ans. In Eliot’s opinion, literary works were only acceptable if they were part of “Tradition” or the “European mind,” but according to Eagleton, this was mostly arbitrary.

20. What is Eagleton’s comment on Eliot’s “Fisher King”?

Ans. According to Eagleton, Eliot’s Fisher King has powerful representations of birth, death, and resurrection that suggest how humans could come to share a common identity.

21. What is practical criticism?

Ans. A method of literary criticism known as “practical criticism” is objective and uses artistic principles and theoretical understandings to analyze and evaluate specific works.

22. What is Eagleton’s view of new criticism?

Ans. According to Eagleton, the new criticism was essentially a full-blooded irrationalism that was strongly tied to both the right-wing ‘blood and soil’ politics of the agricultural movement and religious belief.

23. What sarcastic remark does Eagleton make about the ‘organic society’ desired by Scrutiny?

Ans. Eagleton sarcastically notes that Scrutiny’s intended ‘organic society’ is unattainable, citing more than a lofty wish to reclaim the golden days of the past.

24. What was Scrutiny?

Ans: A Quarterly Review was a literary journal started in 1932 by F. R. Leavis and his wife Queenie Dorothy Roth, a well-known British literary critic.

25. What is the nature of great literature?

Ans: Literature can be defined as an expression of human feelings, thoughts, and ideas whose medium is language, oral and written.

Shihabur Rahman
Shihabur Rahman
Hey, This is Shihabur Rahaman, B.A (Hons) & M.A in English from National University.


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