On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer Bangla Summary (বাংলায়)

Key Facts

  • Author: John Keats (1795-1821)
  • Original Title: “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”
  • Title of the Author: The Poet of Beauty 
  • Written Date: October 1816
  • Published Date: First published in The Examiner in 1816 and later in Poems (1817), Keats’s first collection.
  • Meter: Iambic Pentameter
  • Tone: Admiration
  • Genre: Petrarchan (Italian) Sonnet
  • Total Lines: 14
  • Stanzas: 2, Octave and Sestet
  • Rhyme Scheme: Octave and Sestet, ABBAABBA CDCDCD.
  • Time Setting: In the early 19th century.
  • Place Setting: London, England, while reading the works of the ancient Greek poet Homer, who was freely translated by the Elizabethan playwright George Chapman.

Background: জন কিটস এর ক্লাসিক্যাল (গ্রিক ও রোমান) লেখকদের সাহিত্যকর্ম পড়ার প্রতি অনেক আগ্রহ ছিল। কিন্তু গ্রিক বা রোমান ভাষা তিনি জানতেন না। কারণ তিনি মেডিকেল প্রফেশনে ছিলেন, পরবর্তীতে তিনি সাহিত্য জগতে পদার্পণ করেন। তাই তিনি ক্লাসিকাল লিটারেচার পড়তে, বিভিন্ন লেখকদের ট্রান্সলেশন পড়তে শুরু করেন। সর্বপ্রথম তিনি আলেকজান্ডার পোপের ট্রান্সলেশন পড়তে শুরু করেন। কিন্তু এটা তার ভালো লাগেনি। এলিজাবেথান যুগের একজন কবি ও ট্রান্সলেটর ছিলেন জর্জ চ্যাপম্যান। তিনি হোমারের সাহিত্যকর্ম ইংলিশে ট্রানসলেট করেছিলেন। জন কিটস যখন জর্জ চ্যাপম্যান এর গ্রিক লিটারেচারের ইংলিশ ট্রান্সলেশন পড়েন, তখন জন কিটস এর অনেক ভালো লাগে। আর তখনি তিনি এই কবিতাটি লিখে ফেলেন। জর্জ চ্যাপম্যান খুব সুন্দর করে হোমারের ট্রান্সলেট করেছিলেন, তাই জন কিটস তার প্রশংসা করেই এই কবিতাটি লেখেন।

Selected Quotations 

“Much have I travell’d in the realms of gold,

And many goodly states and kingdoms seen;

Round many western islands have I been-

Explanation: In this line from “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” by John Keats, the speaker expresses that they have extensively explored the world of literature and poetry, having encountered numerous beautiful and rich stories and settings, particularly those from the Western world.

“Yet did I never breathe its pure serene

Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold:”

Explanation: In this line from “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” by John Keats, the speaker is expressing that they had never truly experienced the pure and serene beauty of the work of Homer until they heard the bold and impassioned recitation of it by the translator, George Chapman.

“Oft of one wide expanse had I been told

That deep-brow’d Homer ruled as his demesne;

Explanation:  In this line from “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” by John Keats, the speaker expresses that he had often heard about a vast and expansive subject controlled and mastered by the profound and learned poet, Homer.

ইউটিউবে ভিডিও লেকচার দেখুনঃ

“He stared at the Pacific—and all his men

Look’d at each other with a wild surmise—

Silent, upon a peak in Darien.”

Explanation: In this line from John Keats’ poem “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer,” the speaker describes how he and his companions gazed out at the Pacific Ocean, and they were struck with a sense of awe and wonder, leaving them in a stunned and speechless state as they stood on a peak in Darien, which was a location in Panama.

Powerful Symbols

“Realms of gold”:  “Realms of gold” symbolizes classical Greek literature’s vast and untapped treasures. It represents the wealth of knowledge and artistic beauty that Keats believes he has discovered in Chapman’s translations of Homer.

“Cortez”: The reference to Cortez, the Spanish conquistador, symbolizes the spirit of exploration and discovery. 

“Eagle”: The eagle symbolizes keen vision and the ability to soar to great heights. Keats suggests that his discovery of Chapman’s translations has given him a heightened sense of perception and a new intellectual perspective.

Homer Himself: Homer, the ancient Greek poet, symbolizes timeless literary greatness. Homer represents the pinnacle of poetic achievement, and Keats’s discovery of his works through Chapman is momentous.

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Literary Devices

Simile: Keats uses a simile to compare his sense of discovery to that of an astronomer who has made a groundbreaking discovery. For example, “Much have I travell’d in the realms of gold” compares his reading experience to a journey through uncharted territory.

Metaphor: The poem is metaphorical, with the “realms of gold” representing the world of classical literature and knowledge. This extended metaphor is central to the poem’s theme of discovery.

Allusion: Keats alludes to historical and mythological figures and events, such as Cortez, Darien, and the “wide-ruled West.” These allusions add depth to the poem and connect the theme of discovery to broader historical and cultural contexts.

Imagery: The poem is rich in visual imagery, with phrases like “realms of gold,” “stout Cortez,” and “wide-ruled West,” creating vivid mental pictures for the reader. This imagery helps convey the sense of wonder and excitement experienced by the speaker.

Hyperbole: The poem uses hyperbolic language to emphasize the magnitude of the discovery, such as “silent, upon a peak in Darien,” which exaggerates the silence and stillness of the scene.

Symbolism: The “realms of gold” symbolize the world of classical literature and knowledge, while “Chapman’s Homer” symbolizes the gateway to that world.

Dominated Themes 

Discovery and Exploration: The poem begins with Keats describing his sense of discovery and exploration as he reads Chapman’s translation of Homer’s works. He likens this experience to an explorer who has just made a new and profound discovery.

The Power of Literature: Keats emphasizes the transformative power of literature and poetry. He suggests that reading Chapman’s translation of Homer’s poems has expanded his intellectual and emotional horizons, allowing him to see and appreciate the world in a new and profound way.

Aesthetic Experience: The poem highlights the aesthetic and emotional impact of poetry. Keats expresses the beauty and sublimity he finds in Chapman’s translation, suggesting that it can stir the soul and inspire deep emotions.

Connection to Greek Mythology: Keats references Greek mythology and ancient Greek culture, as Homer’s epics are foundational texts in Greek literature. The mention of “realms of gold” and “stout Cortez” alludes to the legendary Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés, drawing a parallel between literary and geographical exploration.

The Role of Imagination: The poem underscores the role of imagination in appreciating and interpreting literature. Keats’ imaginative reading of Chapman’s translation allows him to experience the beauty and grandeur of Homer’s poetry, even though he is reading a translation.

Personal Growth: Keats suggests that this literary encounter has been a transformative experience for him personally. It has expanded his intellectual and emotional horizons, making him feel more enriched and enlightened.

Celebration of Artistic Achievement: The poem celebrates the achievement of George Chapman in translating Homer’s epic works into English. It acknowledges Chapman’s contribution to literature and the power of great translations to bring the classics to a wider audience.

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The Speaker: The poem is written in the first person, and the speaker is John Keats himself. He is the central character who experiences the emotions and revelations described in the poem.

George Chapman: While not a physical character in the poem, George Chapman is the translator of Homer’s works. He is a significant literary figure who brought the ancient Greek epics of Homer to the English-speaking world.

Homer: Homer is the ancient Greek poet and author of epic poems such as the Iliad and the Odyssey. In the poem, Homer represents the classical world of literature and culture that the speaker has discovered through Chapman’s translation.

Cortez and Balboa: These historical figures are mentioned in the poem to draw a parallel to the speaker’s sense of discovery. Cortez and Balboa were Spanish explorers who, like the speaker, experienced awe and wonder when they first encountered new lands and vistas.

On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer Bangla Summary

চ্যাপম্যানের ট্রান্সলেশন এর প্রশংসা করা: কবিতার স্পীকার পৃথিবীর অনেকগুলো দেশ বা রাজ্য ভ্রমণ করেছেন। তিনি এজিয়ান নদী পাড়ি দিয়ে পশ্চিমের দ্বীপপুঞ্জেও গিয়েছেন। কবি গ্রীক কবিদের লেখার প্রশংসা অনেক শুনেছেন, তবে সেগুলো পড়ার সুযোগ কখনও তার হয়নি।  তিনি সর্বপ্রথম গ্রীক লেখার মধ্যে জর্জ চ্যাপম্যানের অনুবাদ করা হোমার পড়েন। এই লেখা পড়ার পর কবির মনে হয়, তিনি যেন এক নতুন জগৎ আবিষ্কার করলেন। 

নতুন এক সাহিত্য জগৎ আবিষ্কার করা: একজন নভোচারী নতুন কোনো প্ল্যানেট আবিষ্কারের পর যেমনটা অনুভব করেন, কবিও তেমন অনুভূতি হয়। কিটস তার অনুভূতি স্প্যানিশ এক্সপ্লোরার হারনান কোর্টেজের সাথে তুলনা করেছেন। হারনান কোর্টেজ যখন প্রথম প্রশান্ত মহাসাগর দেখে আশ্চর্য হয়েছিলেন, ঠিক তেমনি কবিও এই হোমার পড়ে আশ্চর্যমন্ডিত হন।

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Mr. Abdullah
Mr. Abdullah
This is Mr. Abdullah, a passionate lover and researcher of English Literature.


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